Jabberwocky Index

Note: This is an index of information available on-line about the poem Jabberwocky with links to 140 translations of the poem in 45 languages. There are also links to 28 parodies of the poem, 4 spellcheckifications, and 37 items of reference material related to the Jabberwocky.

Original Jabberwolcky Translations Parodies Reference Material


When I tell people about my site, I always say, “Like the Lewis Carroll poem.” In 2012, my daughter Miriam set up this blog for me. While she mentioned the original poem Jabberwocky, she did not include the original poem and she buried the translations that people have created in a small link. I now have followers from all over the world and I cannot assume that all of my readers are familiar with the story of Alice and the poem.

While this site is not about the poem, my daughter is correct—in the About page—about my fondness for the poem. In high school (1967-‘71), my friends and I found and shared various translations of this poem—actually I think it was my friend R*** H********* who found most of them. Besides the original poem, I had translations in French (tr. 1931), German (tr. 1872), and Latin (tr. circa 1871). I also had one parody version in Plain Geometry (tr. 1925).

Note: The first German translation was actually in a spoof article printed a year after Through the Looking Glass was published, claiming to be the original source of the poem. Also in creating this page I have actually become the obsessive person that my daughter joked that I was—I have all the translations, buah ha ha ha! (On-line at least.)

Origin Story

Lewis Carroll—the pen name of Charles Lutwidge Dodgsonwrote Through the Looking Glass—published in 1871—a follow-up nonsense novel to Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Everything beyond the looking glass—including logic—is reversed and Alice has many strange things happen to her. There are several songs and poems sprinkled throughout the story, but the most famous is the poem Jabberwocky, about a horrible beast that the hero slays. Alice finds this poem in a book that she cannot read, until she holds the book up to a mirror to turn the letters the right way around.

Original poem

Lewis Carroll

‘Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe:
All mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome raths outgrabe.

“Beware the Jabberwock, my son!
The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!
Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun
The frumious Bandersnatch!”

He took his vorpal sword in hand:
Long time the manxome foe he sought—
So rested he by the Tumtum tree,
And stood a while in thought.

And, as in uffish thought he stood,
The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,
Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,
And burbled as it came!

One, two! One, two! And through and through
The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!
He left it dead, and with its head
He went galumphing back.

“And, hast thou slain the Jabberwock?
Come to my arms, my beamish boy!
Oh frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!”
He chortled in his joy.

‘Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe:
All mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome raths outgrabe.

Note: Lewis Carroll made up many of the words in this poem, but he had an opinion on how those words should be pronounced. He later provided a pronunciation guide to aid his readers.


The first translation

Shortly after it was published, the Jabberwocky was translated into Latin by Hassard H. Dodgson—Charles Lutwidge Dodgson’s uncle (tr. circa 1871).


Hassard H. Dodgson

Hora aderat briligi. Nunc et Slythia Tova
Plurima gyrabant gymbolitare vabo;
Et Borogovorum mimzebant undique formae,
Momiferique omnes exgrabure Rathi.

“Cave, Gaberbocchum moneo tibi, nate cavendum
(Unguibus ille rapit. Dentibus ille necat.)
Et fuge Jubbubum, quo non infestior ales,
Et Bandersnatcham, quae fremit usque, cave.”

Ille autem gladium vorpalem cepit, et hostem
Manxonium long sedulitate petit;
Tum sub tumtummi requiescens arboris umbr
Stabat tranquillus, multa animo meditans.

Dum requiescebat meditans uffishia, monstrum
Praesens ecce! oculis cui fera flamma micat,
Ipse Gaberbocchus dumeta per horrida sifflans
Ibat, et horrendum burbuliabat iens!

Ter, quater, atque iterum cito vorpalissimus ensis
Snicsnaccans penitus viscera dissecuit.
Exanimum corpus linquens caput abstulit heros
Quocum galumphat multa, domumque redit.

“Tune Gaberbocchum potuisti, nate, necare?
Bemiscens puer! ad brachia nostra veni.
Oh! frabiusce dies! iterumque caloque calque
Laetus eo” ut chortlet chortla superba senex.

Hora aderat briligi. Nunc et Slythia Tova
Plurima gyrabant gymbolitare vabo;
Et Borogovorum mimzebant undique formae,
Momiferique omnes exgrabure Rathi.

Further Translations

Since that first translation, it has become something of a linguistic challenge to translate the Jabberwocky into as many languages as possible. While Wikipedia lists that the Jabberwocky has been translated into 65 languages, many are not directly available on-line. The Jabberwocky has been translated into some languages more than once—for example on one site I found has 24 translations in Russian (Русский).

Since I have no desire to host so many versions of the Jabberwocky poem, I have made a link index to all of these translations on-line. The majority of these links lead to Жаб Бервоцкий’s Journal, a site which contains the largest number of translations that I have found—98 translations in 30 different languages. This site also includes some reference material—some in Russian not available elsewhere.

My second primary site belongs to Keith Lim. Keith has 58 translations in 29 different languages, while there is a great overlap with Жаб’s site, he has 6 translations that Жаб is missing. Keith’s site also has 23 parody versions of the Jabberwocky, as well as, substantial reference materials related to the poem— Жаб’s site has only 9 parodies, most of which were included in Keith’s site.

I have merged the best of these two sites and I have also found a several translations and other reference material—on transcribing this complex poem in different languages—that both of these sites are missing. Some the translations I have found cover only the first 1-2 stanzas of the poem . These—from whatever the source—are marked [Partial].

Index for the Jabberwocky On-line

Original  Poem

Jabberwocky (By Lewis Carroll)


Note: Wikipedia lists 65 translations of Through the Looking Glass. Translations know to exist, but not found on-line are listed as [language] (author). If you find a copy of any of these, please send me the link. These translations are not included in the tally at the top of this page.

Note2: If you link to different versions of the same translation, you might find that some have seemingly random “x’s” in the middle of some words. These “x’s” replace accent marks that someone’s computer program did not know how to deal with. If you run into a confusing “x” in any translation ignore it.

Afrikaans (1) Die Flabberjak (Linette Retief)
Afrikaans (2) Brabbelwoggel (André P. Brink)
Afrikaans (3) Die Jabberwok (Chris Cloete)

Anglo-Saxon (1) Stanza of Anglo-Saxon Poetry (Lewis Carroll, 1855) [Partial]

Aribic (1) جابر ووكي (Nada Al-Rifai)

ASL (1) [American Sign Language] Jabberwocky (Crom Saunders)
ASL (2) [American Sign Language] Jabberwocky (Eric Malzkuhn)
ASL (3) [American Sign Language] Jabberwocky (Mindy Moore)
ASL (4) [American Sign Language] Jabberwocky Redux (ASL tr. Crom Saunders)
ASL (5) [American Sign Language] Jabberwocky in ASL (California School for the Deaf – Riverside)
ASL (6) [American Sign Language] Jabberwocky(carissab182)
ASL (7) [American Sign Language] Jabberwocky ASL Interpretation (Abrey Barwise)
ASL (8) [American Sign Language] ASL Jabberwocky (Michael Gonzales)
ASL (9) [American Sign Language] Jabberwocky (Deaf Duo, Theron Parker)

[Asturian (1)] (Xilberto Llano )

[Basque (1)] (Manu López Gaseni )

Bengali (1) Jaborkhaaki (Satyajit Ray)

[Belarusian (1)] (Max Ščur – Максим Шчур)

Bulgarian (1)  ДЖАБЕРУОКИ (Превод Стефан Гечев)

Catalan (1) Endraperós (Josep M. Albaigès)

Chinese (1) 蛟龙杰伯沃基就诛记 (Mingfei Zhao)
Chinese (2) 傑伯沃基 (Xiaozhitang Publishing House)

Choctaw (1) Chabbawaaki (Aaron Broadwell) [Partial]

[Cornish (1)] (Tony Hak)
[Cornish (2)] (Nicholas Williams)

Czech (1) Žvahlav (Jaroslav Císař)
Czech (2) Tlachapoud (Aloys & Hana Skoumal)
Czech (3) Hromoplk (© Václav Pinkava)

Danish (1) Kloppervok (Arne Herløv Petersen)
Danish (2) Jabberwocky (Mogens Jermiin Nissen)

Dutch (1) De Krakelwok (Ab Westervaarder & René Kurpershoek)
Dutch (2) Wauwelwok (Alfred Kossmann & C. Reedijk)
Dutch (3) Koeterwaal (Nicolaas Matsier)

English, Plain (1) Jabberwocky—in Plain English (“The Grey Elf”)

Esperanto (1) La Ĵargonbesto (tr. Marjorie Boulton)
Esperanto (2) Babeĉado (tr. Jim Cool)
Esperanto (3) Ĝaberǔoko (Mark Armantrout)
Esperanto (4) Jabervokado (William F. Orr)

Estonian (1) Jorruline (Risto Järv)

[Faroese (1)] (Agnar Artúvertin)

Finnish (1) Pekoraali (Kirsi Kunnas & Eeva-Liisa Manner)
Finnish (2) Pekoralistihirviö [?] (anonymous) [Partial]
Finnish (3) Monkerias [?] (Alice Martin) [Partial]
Finnish (4) Jappervokki [?] (Matti Rosvalli) [Partial]

French (1) Le Jaseroque (Frank L. Warrin)
French (2) Jabberwocky (Henri Parisot)
French (3) Jabberwocheux (Henri Parisot) Earlier
French (4)  Le Berdouilleux (André Bay)
French (5) Bredoulocheux (Henri Parisot) Later
French (6) Le Jabberwocky (J. B. Brunius) [Partial]
French (7) Jabberwocky (Antonin Artaud) [Partial]

[Galician (1)] (Teresa Barro & Fernando Pérez-Barreiro Nolla )

Georgian (1) ტარტალოკი (Giorgi Gokieli) [Partial]

German (1) Der Jammerwoch (Robert Scott)
German (2) Brabbelback (Lieselotte & Martin Remane)
German (3) Der Zipferlake (Christian Enzensberger)
German (4) Jabberwocki (Werner Bloch)
German (5) Vom Plapperloch (O. Werdau und G. von Kleist)
German (6) Schepperwocki (Dieter H. Stündel)
German (7) Legende vom Schebberroch (Günther Flemming)
German (8) Der Schlabberwork (Barbara Teutsch)

Greek (1) I Iabberioki (Mary Matthews)
Greek (2) ΦΛΥΑΡΟΥΔΗΜΑ (Unknown)

[Hawaiian (1)] (R. Keao NeSmith)

[Hindi (1)] (Shailendra)

Hebrew (1) Pitoni (Aaron Amir)
Hebrew (2) מַלְמְלָדוּת (Unknown)

Hungarian (1) Szajkóhukky (Weőres Sándor)

Icelandic (1) Rausuvokkskviða (Valdimar Briem) [Partial]

[Indonesian (1)] (Agustina Reni Eta Sitepoe)

Irish (1) Geabairleog (Tr. Nicholas Williams)

Italian (1) Il Ciarlestrone (Adriana Crespi)
Italian (2) Giabervocco (Unknown)
Italian (3) Ciarlestroniana (Masolino d’Amico)
Italian (4) Il Ciarlavotto (Pierfrancesco La Mura)
Italian (5) Il Ciciarampa (Unknown) [Partial]
Italian (6) Il Ciarlavotto (Unknown)

Japanese (1) Jabawo-ku (Andrew Thompson)
Japanese (2) ジャバーウォックの歌 (高橋康也訳 – tr. Takahashi Yasuya)
Japanese (3) ジャバーウォックの歌 (柳瀬尚紀訳 – tr. Naoki Yanase)
Japanese (4) ジャバーウォックの (生野幸吉訳 – Ikino Kokichi)
Japanese (5) Jabawakuki (Tim Sensei)
Japanese (6) ジャバウォッ(Unknown)
Japanese (7) 傑伯沃基 (阿葵自譯 – Akui)
[Japanese (8)] (長谷川天渓 – Hasegawa Tenkei)
[Japanese (9)] (脇明子 -Waki Akiko)

Jérriais (1) La Dgiabl’yéouoqu’thie(1) (© Geraint Jennings, Juilet)
             Note: Jérriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey.

Kēlen (1) Jakewāla (Sylvia Sotomayor) invented language and writing system

Klingon (1) ja’pu’vawqoy (Keith Lim) [Partial]
Klingon (2) ja’pu’vawq (M. Turner)

Korean (1) 재버워키 (Unknown)

Latin (1) Gaberbocchus (Hassard H. Dodgson)
Latin (2) Mors Iabrochii (Augustus A. Vansittart)
Latin (3) Gabrobocchia (Unknown)
Latin (4) Iubervox (“Nadav”)
[Latin (5)] (Clive Harcourt Carruthers)

Lithuanian (1) Taukšlys (Unknown)

Norwegian (1) Dromeparden (Zinken Hopp)

Polish (1) DZIABERLIADA (Stanisław Barańczak)
Polish (2)  DZABBERSMOK (Maciej Slomczyński)
Polish (3) ŻABROŁAKI (Robert Stiller)
Polish (4) ŻABROŁAK (Janusz Korwin-Mikke)

Portugese (1) Jaguardarte (Augusto de Campos)

Romanian (1) Trăncăniciada (Frida Papadache)
Romanian (2) Bîzdîbocul (Nina Cassian)

Русский (1) Russian Бармаглот (перевод Д. Орловской )
Русский (2) Russian Верлиока (Перевод Щепкиной-Куперник)
Русский (3) Russian Тарбормошки (перевод А. Щербаковой)
Русский (4) Russian Бурконос (Дмитрий Ратанов)
Русский (5) Russian Борчардес (перевод М. Вербицкого
Русский (6) Russian * * * [Умзара?] (перевод Вл. Орла)
Русский (7) Russian Жаберволк (перевод Д. Гусева)
Русский (8) Russian Кошкар (перевод Константина Соколова)
Русский (9) Russian Керогазель (перевод С. Битюкова)
Русский (10) Russian Мордолак (перевод Д. Коновальчика)
Русский (11) Russian Курёхиншпиль (перевод А. Тарна)
Русский (12) Russian Вурдалак (перевод без подписи)
Русский (13) Russian Корчубей (перевод Д. Манина)
Русский (14) Russian Бормочун (перевод С. Скловского)
Русский (15) Russian Пакид (перевод Сони Гантман)
Русский (16) Russian Буримор (перевела М-ка)
Русский (17) Russian Полтораки (перевод Беллинсгаузена И. Лазарева)
Русский (18) Russian “Баллада о Джаббервокке” (В. и Л.Успенские)
Русский (19) Russian Буркорык (перевод М. Алексеевой)
Русский (20) Russian Джаббервокка (И.Л.Галинская) [Partial]
Русский (21) Russian Лукомор (перевод Кошало Мяученного)
Русский (22) Russian  Жабык (перевод В. Тарасенко)
Русский (23) Russian Бурчулай (перевод И.П.Козловойского)

Slovakian (1) Taradúr (Juraj & Viera Vojtek)

Spanish (1) Chacaloco (Erwin Brea)
Spanish (2) El Jabberwocky (Adolfo de Alba)
Spanish (3) El Dragobán (M. Manent)
Spanish (4) Galimatazo (Jaime de Ojeda)
Spanish (5) Jabberwocky (Mirta Rosenberg & Daniel Samoilovich)
Spanish (6) Chacharhuock (translated to Spanish by Eduardo Stilman)
Spanish (7) Bemboguaba (Enrique Sacerio-Garí)
Spanish (8) Jerigóndor (Francisco Torres Oliver)
Spanish (9) Fablistanón (tr. Ramón Buckley)
Spanish (10) Fablistanón (tr. Jorge A. Sánchez)
Spanish (11) Guirigayero (Unknown)
Spanish (12) El flonstluo (Unknown)
Spanish (13) Jabrocal (Ebyan Alvarez-Buylla)
Spanish (14) Farfusinato (Jennifer Blundell) [Partial]
Spanish (15 ) El Baraúndo  (Julio Trujillo)
[Spanish (16] (Marta Olmos)

Spargan (1) IMPRECAŢIE (Nina Cassian) [Invented Language; Partial]

Swedish (1) Jabberwocky (Louise Arosenius)
Swedish (2) Tjatterskott (Harry Lundin)
Swedish (3) Tjatterslånet (Eva Håkanson)
Swedish (4) Jabberwocky (Gösta Knutson)
Swedish (5) Jabberwocky (Unknown)

Turkish (1) Ejdercenkname (Insanolunbiraz)

Welsh (1) Siaberwoci (Selyf Roberts)

Yiddish (1) Yomervokhets (Raphael Finkel)

Parodies (26)


Parody (1) ARPAwocky (D. L. Covill) The ARPANET
Parody (2) Viruwormy (Ed Combs) Internet Worm
Parody (3) Jargontalk (Larry Colen) Hackerspeak
Parody (4) Русский (24) Russian  Компоглот (перевод Владимира по мотивам пародии Л.Коллен)  Note: Jargontalk in Russian.
Parody (5) C-Wocky (Soh Kam Yung) C Programming
Parody (6) Joystick Jabberwocky (Frank Jacobs) Nintendo Games
Parody (7)  Browser Mocky (“Abacus”) Web Browser Wars
Parody (8) def jabberWocky: a Python Script (Austin Dixon)  [Partial]


Parody (9) Jabbercandy (Dwight Gleason) Halloween Candy
Parody (10) Chapatiwocky (Peter Cole) Indian Cuisine

Mathematics and Sciences

Parody (11) Plain Geometry (Emma Rounds) Euclidian Geometry
Parody (12) Wockyjabber (Hilbert Schenck, Jr.) Integral Solving
Parody (13)  The Derivative (Francis J. Menotti) Calculus Class
Parody (14) Chemowocky (Mark Stewart) The Chemical Elements
Parody (15) Botaniwocky (Peter Cole) Carnivorous Plants

Places and Events

Parody (16) Jabberstocky (Peter Stucki) Wall Street Trading
Parody (17) Jerseywocky (Paul Kieffer) New Jersey
Parody (18) Comsubpacky (Clifton Palmer McLendon) The U.S. Navy
Parody (19) Jabberwocky a la academe (“Zine”) Spring Break in Florida
Parody (20) Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogochiwoci (Peter Cole) Welsh Place Names


Parody (21) Election Year Jabberwocky (Frank Jacobs) 1980 U. S. Election Campaign Rhetoric
Parody (22) ClinStarr-Talky (Kenneth Nuckols) 1997-1998 Clinton/Starr/Lewinsky/Tripp scandal

Movies and Television

Parody (23) Jabber-Whacky (Isabelle Di Caprio) TV Advertising (U. S. 1960s)
Parody (24) Lewis Carroll as a TV Critic (Frank Jacobs) TV Programs (U. S. 1970s-1980s)
Parody (25) Hollywood Jabberwocky (Frank Jacobs) The Movies (Mad Magazine 1975)


Parody (26) Yallerbocky or the Second Coming of Author (Mostyn Piggot) The Yellow Book (1894-1897)
Parody (27) The Jabberwocky, OR: The Monstrous, Talkative Chicken (“Ovid”)
Parody (28) ASL Music Video—Jabberwocky 2012 (Bjorn Storm)

Note: I debated whether or not to put this last item in Translations, but it is more of a humorous reinterpretation than a translation. Warning! “The video…is not appropriate for children. This interpretation
includes [ASL] signs considered profane or vulgar.”

Spellcheckification (4)

Note: Or what happens when you run the Jabberwocky through various generations of spell checkers.

Spellcheckification (1) Three versions of Jabberwocky produced by running it through a spell checker and taking the first, second and third guesses respectively (Produced by Lee Altenberg)
Spellcheckification (2) Jabberwocky ala Newton (Robert McNally)
Spellcheckification (3) Перевод программы (Перевод программы Socrat)
Spellcheckification (4) Jabber Wacky (Unknown)

Reference Material

Looking Glass Poem

The Poem (1) Jabberwocky (Lewis Carroll—Charles Lutwidge Dodgson)
The poem (2) Jabberwocky (Lewis Carroll, read by Christopher Lee)
The poem (3) Jabberwocky (Lewis Carroll, read by Benedict Cumberbatch)
The Poem (4) Through the Looking Glass” (Lewis Carroll) Alice’s first encounter with the poem
The Poem (5) Glorious Nonsense (David Shaw) Jabberwocky Media Index
The Poem (6) Translations of Through the Looking-Glass (Wikipedia)

Explanations of the Poem

Explanations (1) Humpty Dumpty’s Explanation “I can explain all the poems that ever were invented” (Lewis Carroll)
Explanations (2) Dodgson’s Explanation to Maud Standen (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, Letter, December 1877)
Explanations (3) Carroll’s Pronunciation Guide (Lewis Carroll)
Explanations (4) Annotations (Martin Gardner)
Explanations (5) Lemmawocky (Carol Lewis) an analysis of Jabberwocky
Explanations (6) Essay on Nonsense Language in Carroll’s Jabberwocky (Bartleby Research)
Explanations (7) Jabberwocky and Différance (Jessica Durham)

Origin of the Poem

Origin (1) Stanza of Anglo-Saxon Poetry (Lewis Carroll, 1855) [Partial]
Origin (2) Made More Stir Than Anything Else (Eleanor Graham)
Origin (3) Most Important of the Poems (Anne Clark)
Origin (4) The Saga of Jabberwocky (Robert Scott)
Origin (5) Jabberwocky a discussion of the origin of the poem [in Russian]
Origin (6) Chapter from the work of I. L. Galinsky. “Lewis Carroll and the Mysteries of His Texts” [in Russian]

About (3) Глава из работы И.Л. Галинской. “Льюис Кэролл и загадки его текстов”
About (3) Cont. Еще одна глава из работы И.Л. Галинской. “Льюис Кэролл и загадки его текстов”
About (3) Fin. И еще одна глава из работы И.Л. Галинской. “Льюис Кэролл и загадки его текстов”

Jabberwocky Translation Articles

Translation (1) Two Japanese Jabberwocky Poems (Jennifer O’Donnell)
Translation (2) Jabberwocky: how do you translate a word that doesn’t mean anything? (Gretchen McCulloch)
Translation (3) Jabberwocky (“Freeglot”)
Translation (4) Translatability or untranslatability: Perspectives in Chinese translations of Jabberwocky (Derong Xu & Jianli Jiang)
Translation (5) Slaying the Chinese Jabberwock (Alan Levinovitz)
Translation (6) Artaud Through the Looking Glass (Laura Wetherington)
Translation (7) Problem of Translating “Jabberwocky”: The Nonsenseliterature of Lewis Carroll and Edward Lear And Their Spanish Translators (Pilar Orero)
Translation (8) Some uffish thoughts on the Swedish translations of “Jabberwocky” (Björn Sundmark)
Translation (9) Translating Nonsense Verse (Flaminia Robu)
Translation (10) Translation is the Other Side of the Tapestry (Jason Henninger)
Translation (11) Translating Jabberwocky: Quotability with a Vengeance (Alice Martin)
Translation (12) Use of translation as a research method in contrastive cognitive poetics: Word formation in Jabberwocky and its Ukrainian translations (Lu Wei-Lun, Kemmer Suzanne, Shurma Svitlana, & Rambousek Jiří)
Translation (13) Making Phonological Sense out of Nonsense Poetry (Jodi Lamm)
Translation (14) El Jabberwocky (Julio Trujillo)
Translation (15) The Perils and Nonpereils of Literary Nonsense Translation (Michael Heyman)
Translation (16) A Linguistic and Literary Analysis of Two ASL Translations of Jabberwocky (Rebecca Wright)
Translation (17) Jabberwocky, or the poetry of function words (Itziar Laka)
Translation (18) Jabberwocky Nonsense: The Place of Meaning in Translation (Lydia H. Liu)